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LIV Energy Solutions

POWERSAVER 1200 - Now Available There Is No Energy Crisis, There is a Crisis of Ignorance
Global warming is an urgent, but solvable problem. We Campaign, a powerful nonpartisan movement of concerned citizens that was founded by Nobel Prize Laureate and former Vice President Al Gore. We're already a million strong -- and growing each day. The We Campaign is working to ensure that elected leaders make the climate crisis a priority. Although it?s not too late, global warming is very serious and there is no time to lose. So please don?t wait any longer to get involved ? Visit http://www.wecansolveit.org
GreenLife Homes'™ network of skilled professionals has years of experience and a drive to promote sustainable living. Individually, they have built, remodeled, and designed hundreds of structures.
Formed in early 2007 GreenLife Homes with the hope that healthy, green, sustainable building would be the company's baseline. GreenLife Homes™ strives to deliver the utmost quality in their craftsmanship, integrity in relationships and a servant's heart.
Chris Hall, Josh Rupp, Shannon Rupp, Lon Rupp, Mary McGraw-Bigelow and the rest of the trusted GreenLife family have worked with many municipalities in Michigan.
Power-Save Energy Co. is a manufacturing company dedicated to the sale of energy saving products for homeowners and commercial purposes. Mr. Forster is an experienced entrepreneur in all facets of business. He has organized and executed the start-up of companies. He has worked under contract in both the private and public company sectors to affect corporate and financial restructuring. As well, Mr. Forster has held senior management level positions at a Fortune 500 company.
SunPower Corporation (Nasdaq: SPWR) designs, manufactures and delivers high-performance solar electric systems worldwide for residential, commercial and utility-scale power plant customers. SunPower high-efficiency solar cells and solar panels generate up to 50 percent more power than conventional solar technologies and have a uniquely attractive, all-black appearance. With headquarters in San Jose, Calif., SunPower has offices in North America, Europe and Asia. SunPower is a majority-owned subsidiary of Cypress Semiconductor Corp. (NYSE: CY).
SunPower high-efficiency solar cells generate up to 50 percent more power than conventional cells. Our high-performance solar panels, roof tiles, and tracking systems deliver significantly more energy than conventional systems.
Nanosolar is a global leader in solar power innovation. They are setting the standard for affordable green power with solar cell technology of distinctly superior cost efficiency, versatility, and availability.
The mission is very simple: Delivering cost-efficient solar electricity.
Leveraging recent science in nanostructured materials, they have developed a critical mass of engineering advances that profoundly change the cost efficiency and production scalability of solar electricity cells and panels.
The first product, the Nanosolar Utility Panel™ enables unprecedented system economics at utility scale.
Founded in 2002, they are building the world's largest solar cell factory in California and the world's largest panel-assembly factory in Germany.
Hybridyne Power Systems Canada Inc. specializes in the international sales and installation of Hybrid (Wind & Solar) Renewable Energy Systems, of the distributed-architecture, peak-shaving, non-co-gen type.
They are the Sales, Applications & Marketing arm for The Hybridyne Group of Companies.
In 2004, the founders of the company and the group conceived a small (under 100kW) renewable energy system that was to be unlike anything else currently available on the market today. The technology is now patent pending.
Newhope manufacturer of wind turbines, they produce patented vertical axis wind turbines for domestic and commercial use, the range includes 100W, 1000W, 3000W, 5000W, 10KW and 20KW vertical axis wind turbines; 100W 400W horizontal axis wind turbines and 100W spire wind turbine for street lamp use and highly efficient and eco-friendly LED Bulbs with their LED street lights / Solar Hybrid systems.
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acid rain - the precipitation of dilute solutions of strong mineral acids, formed by the mixing in the atmosphere of various industrial pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides -- with naturally occurring oxygen and water vapor.

act - in the legislative sense, a bill or measure passed by both houses of Congress; a law.

adjournment - the end of a legislative day or session.

aerosol - a suspension of small liquid or solid particles in gas.

air pollution - toxic or radioactive gases or particulate matter introduced into the atmosphere, usually as a result of human activity.

alternative energy - energy that is not popularly used and is usually environmentally sound, such as solar or wind energy (as opposed to fossil fuels).

alternative fibers - fibers produced from non-wood sources for use in paper making.

alternative fuels - transportation fuels other than gasoline or diesel. Includes natural gas, methanol, and electricity.

alternative transportation - modes of travel other than private cars, such as walking, bicycling, rollerblading, carpooling and transit.

amendment - a change or addition to an existing law or rule.

ancient forest - a forest that is typically older than 200 years with large trees, dense canopies and an abundance of diverse wildlife.

apportionment - the process through which legislative seats are allocated to different regions.

appropriation - the setting aside of funds for a designated purpose (e.g., there is an appropriation of $7 billion to build 5 new submarines).

aquaculture - the controlled rearing of fish or shellfish by people or corporations who own the harvestable product, often involving the capture of the eggs or young of a species from wild sources, followed by rearing more intensively than possible in nature.

aquifer - underground source of water.

arms control - coordinated action based on agreements to limit, regulate, or reduce weapon systems by the parties involved.

ash - incombustible residue left over after incineration or other thermal processes.

asthma - a condition marked by labored breathing, constriction of the chest, coughing and gasping usually brought on by allergies.

atmosphere - the 500 km thick layer of air surrounding the earth which supports the existence of all flora and fauna.

atomic energy - energy released in nuclear reactions. When a neutron splits an atom's nucleus into smaller pieces it is called fission. When two nuclei are joined together under millions of degrees of heat it is called fusion.

beach closure - the closing of a beach to swimming, usually because of pollution.

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bill - a proposed law, to be debated and voted on.

billfish - pelagic fish with long, spear-like protrusions at their snouts, such as swordfish and marlin.

biodegradable - waste material composed primarily of naturally-occurring constituent parts, able to be broken down and absorbed into the ecosystem. Wood, for example, is biodegradable, for example, while plastics are not.

biodiversity - a large number and wide range of species of animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms. Ecologically, wide biodiversity is conducive to the development of all species.

biomass - (1) the amount of living matter in an area, including plants, large animals and insects; (2) plant materials and animal waste used as fuel.

biosphere - (1) the part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life; (2) the living organisms and their environment composing the biosphere.

Biosphere Reserve - a part of an international network of preserved areas designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Biosphere Reserves are vital centers of biodiversity where research and monitoring activities are conducted, with the participation of local communities, to protect and preserve healthy natural systems threatened by development. The global system currently includes 324 reserves in 83 countries.

biotic - of or relating to life.

birth control - preventing birth or reducing frequency of birth, primarily by preventing conception.

birth defects - unhealthy defects found in newborns, often caused by the mother's exposure to environmental hazards or the intake of drugs or alcohol during pregnancy.

birth rate - the number of babies born annually per 1,000 women of reproductive age in any given set of people.

bloc - a group of people with the same interest or goal (usually used to describe a voting bloc, a group of representatives intending to vote the same way).

blood lead levels - the amount of lead in the blood. Human exposure to lead in blood can cause brain damage, especially in children.

bottled water - purchased water sold in bottles.


Cairo Plan - recommendations for stabilizing world population agreed upon at the U.N. International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994. The plan calls for improved health care and family planning services for women, children and families throughout the world, and also emphasizes the importance of education for girls as a factor in the shift to smaller families.

calendar - in the legislative sense, a group of bills or proposals to be discussed or considered in a legislative committee or on the floor of the House or Senate.

cancer - unregulated growth of changed cells; a group of changed, growing cells (tumor).

carbon dioxide (CO2) - a naturally occurring greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, concentrations of which have increased (from 280 parts per million in preindustrial times to over 350 parts per million today) as a result of humans' burning of coal, oil, natural gas and organic matter (e.g., wood and crop wastes).

carbon tax - a charge on fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) based on their carbon content. When burned, the carbon in these fuels becomes carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the chief greenhouse gas.

carcinogens - substances that cause cancer, such as tar.

carpooling - sharing a car to a destination to reduce fuel use, pollution and travel costs.

caucus - a meeting of a political party, usually to appoint representatives to party positions.

CFC - see chlorofluorocarbons.

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Demand Side Management (DSM) - an attempt by utilities to reduce customers' demand for electricity or energy by encouraging efficiency.

demersal - fish that live on or near the ocean bottom. They are often called benthic fish, groundfish, or bottom fish.

development - (1) a developed tract of land (with houses or structures); (2) the act, process or result of developing.

diesel - a petroleum-based fuel which is burned in engines ignited by compression rather than spark; commonly used for heavy duty engines including buses and trucks.

diesel engine - an internal combustion engine that uses diesel as fuel, producing harmful fumes.

dioxin - a man-made chemical by-product formed during the manufacturing of other chemicals and during incineration. Studies show that dioxin is the most potent animal carcinogen ever tested, as well as the cause of severe weight loss, liver problems, kidney problems, birth defects, and death.

double hulled tankers - large transport ships with two hulls with space between them, protecting the cargo (in most cases, oil) from spilling in case of a collision.

dredge - a fishing method that utilizes a bag dragged behind a vessel that scrapes the ocean bottom, usually to catch shellfish. Dredges are often equiped with metal spikes in order to dig up the catch.

driftnet - a huge net stretching across many miles that drifts in the water; used primarily for large-scale commercial fishing.

dump sites - waste disposal grounds.

ecologist - a scientist concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environment.

ecology - a branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environment.


ecosystem - an interconnected and symbiotic grouping of animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms.

edge cities - cities bounded by water, usually with eroding or polluted waterfront areas.

efficiency - see energy efficiency.

electric vehicles - vehicles which use electricity (usually derived from batteries recharged from electrical outlets) as their power source.

emissions cap - a limit on the amount of greenhouse gases that a company or country can legally emit.

endangered species - species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range.

endocrine disruptors - substances that stop the production or block the transmission of hormones in the body.

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factory farming - large-scale, industrialized agriculture.

factory ships - industrial-style ships used for the large-scale collection and processing of fish.

family planning - a system of limiting family size and the frequency of childbearing by the appropriate use of contraceptive techniques.

fauna - the total animal population that inhabits an area.

federal land - land owned and administered by the federal government, including national parks and national forests.

feedlots - a plot of ground used to feed farm animals.

fertility - the ability to reproduce; in humans, the ability to bear children.

fertility rates - average number of live births per woman during her reproductive years, among a given set of people.

filibuster- a tactic used to delay or stop a vote on a bill by making long floor speeches and debates.


gas - natural gas, used as fuel.

gasoline - petroleum fuel, used to power cars, trucks, lawn mowers, etc.

geothermal - literally, heat from the earth; energy obtained from the hot areas under the surface of the earth.

gillnets - walls of netting that are usually staked to the sea floor. Fish become entangled or caught by their gills. (See also driftnets).

global warming - increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface.

Golden Carrot - an incentive program that is designed to transform the market to produce much greater energy efficiency. The term is a trademark of the Consortium for Energy Efficiency.

grassroots - local or person-to-person. A typical grassroots effort might include a door-to-door education and survey campaign.

grazing - the use of grasses and other plants to feed wild or domestic herbivores such as deer, sheep and cows.

green design - a design, usually architectural, conforming to environmentally sound principles of building, material and energy use. A green building, for example, might make use of solar panels, skylights, and recycled building materials.

greenhouse - a building made with translucent (light transparent, usually glass or fiberglass) walls conducive to plant growth.

greenhouse effect - the process that raises the temperature of air in the lower atmosphere due to heat trapped by greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and ozone.

greenhouse gas - a gas involved in the greenhouse effect.

greenway - undeveloped land usually in cities, set aside or used for recreation or conservation.

groundfish - a general term referring to fish that live on or near the sea floor. Groundfish are also called bottom fish or demersal fish.

groundwater - water below the earth's surface; the source of water for wells and springs.

growth overfishing - the process of catching fish before they are fully grown resulting in a decrease in the average size of the fish population.

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habitat - (1) the natural home of an animal or plant; (2) the sum of the environmental conditions that determine the existence of a community in a specific place.

harpooning - a surface method of fishing that requires considerable effort in locating and chasing individual fish. Harpoons are hand-held or fired from a harpoon gun and aimed at high-value fish, such as giant tuna and swordfish.

haze - an atmospheric condition marked by a slight reduction in atmospheric visibility, resulting from the formation of photochemical smog, radiation of heat from the ground surface on hot days, or the development of a thin mist.

hearings - testimony (sworn statements like those given in court) given before a Congressional committee.

high seas - international ocean water under no single country's legal jurisdiction.

highly migratory fish - fish that travel over great areas.

household hazards - dangerous substances or conditions in human dwellings.

hydroelectric - relating to electric energy produced by moving water.

hydrofluorocarbons - used as solvents and cleaners in the semiconductor industry, among others; experts say that they possess global warming potentials that are thousands of times greater than CO2.

hydropower - energy or power produced by moving water.

hypoxia - the depletion of dissolved oxygen in water, a condition resulting from an overabundance of nutrients of human or natural origin that stimulates the growth of algae, which in turn die and require large amounts of oxygen as the algae decompose. It was the most frequently cited direct cause of fishkills in the U.S. from 1980 to 1989.


ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) - a land-based or mobile rocket-propelled missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead to a range greater than 5,500 kilometers.

ICPD - International Conference on Population and Development.

incinerators - disposal systems that burn solid waste or other materials and reduce volume of waste. Air pollution and toxic ash are problems associated with incineration.

industrialized countries - nations whose economies are based on industrial production and the conversion of raw materials into products and services, mainly with the use of machinery and artificial energy (fossil fuels and nuclear fission); generally located in the northern and western hemispheres (e.g., U.S., Japan, the countries of Europe).

insecticides - substances used to kill insects and prevent infestation.

International Conference on Population and Development - a conference sponsored by the United Nations to discuss global dimensions of population growth and change in Cairo, Egypt in September 1994. The conference is generally considered to mark the achievement of a new consensus on effective ways to slow population growth and improve quality of life by addressing root causes of unwanted fertility.

International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) - an international organization made up of national level affiliates representing every region of the world. IPPF receives and distributes funds from international donor nations to its affiliates, who in turn provide services (prenatal care, contraceptive counseling and service provision, and other reproductive health services) within a country. Some national level organizations provide abortion services, others do not. IPPF sets and supports policies encouraging governmental provision of comprehensive reproductive health care.


lakes - substantial inland bodies of standing water.

landfill - disposal area where garbage is piled up and eventually covered with dirt and topsoil.

landings - the amount of fish brought back to the docks and marketed. Landings can describe the kept catch of one vessel, of an entire fishery, or of several fisheries combined.

land use - the way in which land is used, especially in farming and city planning.

law - an act or bill which has become part of the legal code through passage by Congress and approval by the President (or via Congressional override).

lead - a naturally-occurring heavy, soft metallic element; human exposure can cause brain and nervous system damage, especially in children.

lead poisoning - damaging the body (specifically the brain) by absorbing lead through the skin or by swallowing.

least-cost planning - a process for satisfying consumers' demands for energy services at the lowest societal cost.

leukemia - a form of bone marrow cancer marked by an increase in white blood cells.

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majority leader - the leader of the majority party in either the House or the Senate.

Malthusian - based on the theories of British economist Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), who argued that population tends to increase faster than food supply, with inevitably disastrous results, unless the increase in population is checked by moral restraints or by war, famine, and disease.

mammal - an animal that feeds its young with milk secreted from mammary glands and has hair on its skin.

managed growth - growth or expansion that is controlled so as not to be harmful.

manatee - a plant-eating aquatic mammal found in the waters of Florida, the Caribbean, and off the coast of West Africa.

marbled murrelet - a rare and imperiled bird that nests in ancient forests on the west coast of the U.S.

marine mammal - a mammal that lives in the ocean, such as a whale.

mark-up - action by a Congressional committee to amend and/or approve a bill; following mark-up the bill is "reported" out of committee and is ready for consideration by the entire House or Senate.

marsh - wetland, swamp, or bog.

mass transit - see public transportation.

medfly - the Mediterranean fruit fly, a flying insect.

megalopolis - a large city expanding so fast that city government cannot adjust to provide services (such as garbage disposal).

methyl bromide - the gaseous compound CH3Br used primarily as an insect fumigant; found to be harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer which protects life on earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation.

mining - the removal of minerals (like coal , gold, or silver) from the ground.

minority leader - the leader of the minority party in either the House or the Senate.

Minuteman - an American-made ICBM; 500 Minuteman III ICBMs are deployed currently in the United States.

moratorium - legislative action which prevents a federal agency from taking a specific action or implementing a specific law.

mulch - leaves, straw or compost used to cover growing plants to protect them from the wind or cold.


National Recreation Areas - areas of federal land that have been set aside by Congress for recreational use by members of the public.

nitrogen oxides - harmful gases (which contribute to acid rain and global warming) emitted as a byproduct of fossil fuel combustion.

noise pollution - environmental pollution made up of harmful or annoying noise.

nuclear energy - energy or power produced by nuclear reactions (fusion or fission).

nuclear power - see nuclear energy.

nuclear reactor - an apparatus in which nuclear fission may be initiated, maintained, and controlled to produce energy, conduct research, or produce fissile material for nuclear explosives.

nuclear tests - government tests carried out to supply information required for the design and improvement of nuclear weapons, and to study the phenomena and effects associated with nuclear explosions.


oceanography - the study of the ocean and ocean life.

oil - a black, sticky substance used to produce fuel (petroleum) and materials (plastics).

oil spills - the harmful release of oil into the environment, usually in the water, sometimes killing area flora and fauna. Oil spills are very difficult to clean up.

old growth forests - see ancient forests.

omnibus spending bill - a bill combining the appropriations for several federal agencies.

over-development - expansion or development of land to the point of damage.

over-fishing - fishing beyond the capacity of a population to replace itself through natural reproduction.

over-grazing - grazing livestock to the point of damage to the land.

ozone - a naturally occurring, highly reactive gas comprising triatomic oxygen formed by recombination of oxygen in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. This naturally occurring gas builds up in the lower atmosphere as smog pollution, while in the upper atmosphere it forms a protective layer which shields the earth and its inhabitants from excessive exposure to damaging ultraviolet radiation.

ozone depletion - the reduction of the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere by chemical pollution.

ozone hole - a hole or gap in the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere.

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paper - thin sheet of material made of cellulose pulp, derived mainly from wood, but also from rags and certain grasses, and processed into flexible leaves or rolls. Used primarily for writing, printing, drawing, wrapping, and covering walls.

paper mills - mills (factories) that produce paper from wood pulp.

paper products - materials such as paper and cardboard, produced from trees.

particulate - of or relating to minute discrete particles; a particulate substance.

particulate pollution - pollution made up of small liquid or solid particles suspended in the atmosphere or water supply.

passive solar - using or capturing solar energy (usually to heat water) without any external power.

pelagic species - fish that live at or near the water's surface. Examples of large pelagic species include swordfish, tuna, and many species of sharks. Small pelagics include anchovies and sardines.

pesticides - chemical agents used to destroy pests.

plastics - durable and flexible synthetic-based products, some of which are difficult to recycle and pose problems with toxic properties, especially PVC plastic.

plutonium - a heavy, radioactive, man-made, metallic element (atomic number 94) used in the production of nuclear energy and the explosion of nuclear weapons; its most important isotope is fissile plutonium-239, produced by neutron irradiation of uranium-238.

PM10 - particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter.

poison runoff - see polluted runoff.

poison - a chemical that adversely affects health by causing injury, illness, or death.

polluted runoff - precipitation that captures pollution from agricultural lands, urban streets, parking lots and suburban lawns, and transports it to rivers, lakes or oceans.

pollution prevention - techniques that eliminate waste prior to treatment, such as by changing ingredients in a chemical reaction.

population - (1) the whole number of inhabitants in a country, region or area; (2) a set of individuals having a quality or characteristic in common.

post consumer waste - waste collected after the consumer has used and disposed of it (e.g., the wrapper from an eaten candy bar).

power plants - facilities (plants) that produce energy.

public estate - public land

public health - the health or physical well-being of a whole community.

public land - land owned in common by all, represented by the government (town, county, state, or federal).

public transportation - various forms of shared-ride services, including buses, vans, trolleys, and subways, which are intended for conveying the public.

pulp - raw material made from trees used in producing paper products.

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quorum - minimum number of people who must be present before a specified event can commence (for Congress to vote, at least half the members must be present).


radioactive - of or characterized by radioactivity.

radioactive waste - the byproduct of nuclear reactions that gives off (usually harmful) radiation.

radioactivity - the spontaneous emission of matter or energy from the nucleus of an unstable atom (the emitted matter or energy is usually in the form of alpha or beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons).

radon - a cancer-causing radioactive gas found in many communities' ground water.

rainforest - a large, dense forest in a hot, humid region (tropical or subtropical). Rainforests have an abundance of diverse plant and animal life, much of which is still uncatalogued by the scientific community.

ranking member - the lead member of a Congressional committee from the minority party, usually chosen on the basis of seniority.

recess - ending a legislative session with a set time to reconvene.

recycling - system of collecting, sorting, and reprocessing old material into usable raw materials.

reduce - act of purchasing or consuming less to begin with, so as not to have to reuse or recycle later.

refrigerants - cooling substances, many of which contain CFCs and are harmful to the earth's ozone layer.

renewable energy - energy resources such as windpower or solar energy that can keep producing indefinitely without being depleted.

reservoir - an artificial lake created and used for the storage of water.

resolution - a formal statement from Congress.

reuse - cleaning and/or refurbishing an old product to be used again.

rider - usually unrelated provisions tacked onto an existing Congressional bill. Since bills must pass or fail in their entirety, riders containing otherwise unpopular language are often added to popular bills.

riparian - located alongside a watercourse, typically a river.

risk assessment - methods used to quantify risks to human health and the environment.

run-off - precipitation that the ground does not absorb and that ultimately reaches rivers, lakes or oceans.

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Sagebrush Rebellion - a movement started by ranchers and miners during the late 1970s in response to efforts of the Bureau of Land Management (B.L.M.) to improve management of federal lands. While its announced goal was to give the lands "back" to the western states, its real goal -- and the one it achieved -- was to force the B.L.M. to abandon its new approach to public land management.

salvage logging - the logging of dead or diseased trees in order to improve overall forest health; used by timber companies as a rationalization to log otherwise protected areas.

second-growth forests - forests that have grown back after being logged.

SERP (Super Efficient Refrigerator Program) - an organization of 24 U.S. utilities that developed a $30 million competition to produce a refrigerator at least 25% lower in energy use and 85% lower in ozone depletion than projected 1994 models. The winning product, produced by Whirlpool, cut energy use by 40% in 1995.

sick building syndrome - a human health condition where infections linger, caused by exposure to contaminants within a building as a result of poor ventilation.

silos - fixed vertical underground structures made of steel and concrete that house an ICBM and its launch support equipment.

SIP (State Implementation Plan) - mandate for achieving health-based air quality standards.

SLBM (Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile) - a ballistic missile carried by and launched from a submarine.

smog - a dense, discolored radiation fog containing large quanities of soot, ash, and gaseous pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, responsible for human respiratory ailments. Most industrialized nations have implemented legislation to promote the use of smokeless fuel and reduce emission of toxic gases into the atmosphere.

solar energy - energy derived from sunlight.

solid waste - non-liquid, non gaseous category of waste from non-toxic household and commercial sources.

soot - a fine, sticky powder, comprised mostly of carbon, formed by the burning of fossil fuels.

Speaker - the leader of the House of Representatives, who controls debate and the order of discussion; chosen by vote of the majority party.

spotted owl - reclusive bird, found in the American West, requiring old-growth forest habitat to survive.

sprawl - the area taken up by a large or expanding development or city.

state land - land owned and administered by the state in which it is located.


tap water - drinking water monitored (and often filtered) for protection against contamination and available for public consumption from sources within the home.

tax shift - replacing one kind of taxes with another, without changing the total amount of money collected. For example, replacing a portion of income taxes with carbon tax or other pollution taxes.

telecommuting - working with others via telecommunications technologies (e.g., telephones, modems, faxes) without physically travelling to an office.

thermonuclear - the application of high heat, obtained via a fission explosion, to bring about fusion of light nuclei.

threatened species - species of flora or fauna likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future.

Three Gorges - a project along the Yangtze river in China to build the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.

timber - logged wood sold as a commodity.

TNT Equivalent - a measure of the energy released in the detonation of a nuclear weapon, expressed in terms of the quantity of TNT which would release the same amount of energy.

Tongass - a national forest in southeast Alaska comprising one of the United States' last remaining temperate rainforests.

toxic - poisonous.

toxic emissions - poisonous chemicals discharged to air, water, or land.

toxic sites - land contaminated with toxic pollution, usually unsuitable for human habitation.

toxic waste - garbage or waste that can injure, poison, or harm living things, and is sometimes life-threatening.

toxification - poisoning.

traffic calming - designing streets to reduce automobile speed and to enhance walking and bicycling.

transit - see public transportation.

transportation - any means of conveying goods and people.

transportation planning - systems to improve the efficiency of the transportation system in order to enhance human access to goods and services.

trash - waste material that cannot be recycled and reused (synonymous with garbage).

trawls - nets with a wide mouth tapering to a small, pointed end, usually called the "cod end." Trawls are towed behind a vessel at any depth in the water column.

trip reduction - reducing the total numbers of vehicle trips, by sharing rides or consolidating trips with diverse goals into fewer trips.

trolling - a method of fishing using several lines, each hooked and baited, which are slowly dragged behind the vessel.

turtle excluder device (TED) - a gear modification used on shrimp trawls that enables incidentally caught sea turtles to escape from the nets.

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urban planning - the science of managing and directing city growth.

uranium - a heavy, radioactive metal (atomic number 92) used in the explosion of nuclear weapons (especially one isotope, U-235).

urban parks - parks in cities and areas of high population concentration.

utilities - companies (usually power distributors) permitted by a government agency to provide important public services (such as energy or water) to a region; as utilities are provided with a local monopoly, their prices are regulated by the permitting government agency.


veto - a Presidential action rejecting a bill as passed by the U.S. Congress. The President can also effect a "pocket veto" by holding an unsigned bill past the signing period.

virgin forest - a forest never logged.

voice vote - a vote where members vote by saying either "yes" or "no" together; individual member's votes are not placed on record.


warhead - the part of a missile which contains the nuclear explosive.

waste - garbage, trash.

waste site - dumping ground.

waste stream - overall waste disposal cycle for a given population.

waterborne contaminants - unhealthy chemicals, microorganisms (like bacteria) or radiation, found in tap water.

water filters - substances (such as charcoal) or fine membrane structures used to remove impurities from water.

water quality - the level of purity of water; the safety or purity of drinking water.

water quality testing - monitoring water for various contaminants to make sure it is safe for fish protection, drinking, and swimming.


zero emission vehicles - vehicles (usually powered by electricity) with no direct emissions from tailpipes or fuel evaporation.

zoning - the arrangement or partitioning of land areas for various types of usage in cities, boroughs or townships.

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